10-27-2011 02:06 PM
10-29-2011 05:17 PM
public servant accountability
Okay, here is the second page with the signature. I wasn't going to post it but on second thought don't see why these public servants should not be named and held accountable.
Originally Posted by Tenspot
11-03-2011 10:26 AM
How Coal Is Formed
From one of many sites on coal.
COAL: Ancient Gift Serving Modern Man
American Coal Foundation
How Coal Is Formed
Coal is called a fossil fuel because it was formed from the remains of vegetation that grew as long as 400 million years ago. It is often referred to as "buried sunshine," because the plants which formed coal captured energy from the sun through photosynthesis to create the compounds that make up plant tissues. The most important element in the plant material is carbon, which gives coal most of its energy.
Most of our coal was formed about 300 million years ago, when much of the earth was covered by steamy swamps. As plants and trees died, their remains sank to the bottom of the swampy areas, accumulating layer upon layer and eventually forming a soggy, dense material called peat.
Over long periods of time, the makeup of the earth's surface changed, and seas and great rivers caused deposits of sand, clay and other mineral matter to accumulate, burying the peat. Sandstone and other sedimentary rocks were formed, and the pressure caused by their weight squeezed water from the peat. Increasingly deeper burial and the heat associated with it gradually changed the material to coal. Scientists estimate that from 3 to 7 feet of compacted plant matter was required to form 1 foot of bituminous coal.
Coal formation is a continuing process (some of our newest coal is a mere 1 million years old). Today, in areas such as the Great Dismal Swamp of North Carolina and Virginia, the Okefenokee Swamp of Georgia, and the Everglades in Florida, plant life decays and subsides, eventually to be covered by silts and sands and other matter. Perhaps millions of years from now, those areas will contain large coal beds.
11-03-2011 10:51 AM
Compaction ratios of various coals from the Nanaimo coalified, as measured in place
The compaction ratio depends upon the nature of the original plant material, and the extent of its syndepositional permineralisation. In the course of mapping the Nanaimo coalfield over the years, I measured the ratios and found the following results:
Originally Posted by MDavis
2.5:1 for an isolated coalified and permineralised 'palm' log exposed in Unit M5 gritstone of the Millstream Member of the Extension Formation, during blasting of the Nanaimo Parkway road cut south of Island Kenworth yard.
3.4:1 for an isolated coalified 'cypress' (cf. Taxodium) log exposed in the fkior of the Cedar Bridge coal bed along the Duke Point Highway road cut about 50 metres east of the Cedar Road overpass. This coal lies within the Reserve Member of the Protection Formation
5.2:1 for a lense of very stony dull-banded coal, possibly part of the 'disturbed' channel-complex coal within the Douglas Main coal zone as exposed in the mine-yard of Wellington-Extension No.10 Mine at South Wellington. This coal lies within the Newcastle Member of the Pender Formation.
6.6:1 for a channel-filling lense of bright-banded coal lying between the Wellington and the Wellington Rider coal beds in the left-hand rib of the Main Conveyor Roadway of Wolf Mountain Colliery, just inside of the inner end of the steel-arched portion of that roadway. This coal lies within the undivided Northfield Member of the Extension Formation.
6.9:1 for bright-banded, apparently-clean coal at the eroded edge of the Wellington No.2 ('Little Wellington' or 'Number 9') coal bed on the right-hand rib of Dunsmuir's 'Original Entry' at North Wellington. This coal lies within Unit N3 of the Northfield Member of the Extension Formation.
I made quite a few more measurements than that, but at least there you have a range of values. I regret that I was never able to obtain a good value for the Newcastle coal bed.
That's probably way more coal science than you ever wanted to read!
11-03-2011 02:34 PM
11-03-2011 05:21 PM
Question for Gwyneth
When I burn a wooden log (or coal) in the fire, the energy of the sun gets released again. But where does it go? And how does it settle?
The energy just doesn't go away, does it? It must remain somewhere, perhaps in a different form to be reused or released again?
Last edited by MDavis; 11-03-2011 at 06:19 PM.
Reason: added "or coal"
11-24-2011 08:40 PM
Got off on a tangent and found this video. I thought it was pretty cool and it looked like some of the video showed the style of mining and carts used in Nanaimo.
Johnny Cash - 16 tons
11-25-2011 06:25 AM
Surrey Iron Railway origins of WCR?
This is where I think Robert Dunsmuir got some of his original equipment from. The Surrey Iron Railway (SIR) ran from 1803 to 1846. I have a couple pieces of rail, one with marking "1811" that came from the Wellington 'old slope'. This is very old rail if Dunsmuir did in fact buy up the remains of the SIR to build his original Wellington Colliery Railroad (WCR) in the 1860s. We know from historical accounts that his main line from the mine to Departure Bay was made from flat strap iron fastened to wooden timber. However, that would not necessarily be the case in and around the mine itself where the "I" section rail profile wrought iron type of steel would more likely than flat iron strips have been in use, especially around curves such as mine are. To fit these pieces, I had to get them heated to red hot to make the bend adjustments otherwise they would have easily snapped. No way to bend them cold. This week, I've been visiting mine sites here east of Phoenix, Arizona in the Goldfield area where there are several artifacts that date back to about the 1840s. If these two pieces of iron are in fact of 1811 vintage, these would be the oldest operating rails anywhere in the world. They are presently located in Wellington (on the WCR) in the bottom right corner of the first image, forming the outside of the curve.
Second image below is from an 1823 woodcut I pulled from wikepedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surrey_Iron_Railway
Image credit as follows:
English: Watercolour showing the Surrey Iron Railway, the first public railway company , passing Chipstead Valley Road. Early 19th Century ( railway depicted closed in 1846). Source http://briscoe-smith.org.uk/thalia/Local_History.htm
Last edited by Peter Roosen; 11-27-2011 at 10:33 AM.
11-25-2011 09:12 PM
200 year old rail in service! Awesome!
Does the 1811 rail have SIR markings on it?
11-27-2011 08:01 AM
1850s-'60s Dunsmuir & Diggle / Wellington records
There might be. I think there were other markings but hard to make out. Needed to use chalk a few years ago while the rails were laid out on a workbench to raise the "1811" from a couple places on the two pieces. Didn't figure out the prospective S.I.R. lineage until after they were installed. Might need to take them up again for re-examination. I was hoping someone would find a mid 1800s ship manifest or something from some remaining records of the Dunsmuir & Diggle / Wellington Colliery offices to shed some light on where Robert Dunsmuir obtained his early mining and railway equipment.